Global Corruption Barometer 2016

Posted by: | Posted on: Ноябрь 15, 2016

barometerTransparency Azerbaijan is pleased to present the results of a new 2016 Global Corruption Barometer (hereinafter the “Barometer”) by Transparency International, Global Coalition against Corruption.  This year, the global report is released in the format of regional series with Azerbaijan included into the report for Europe and Central Asia, summarizing opinions of nearly 60,000 people across 42 countries of the region. The sampling for Azerbaijan included 1,510 respondents and the survey was conducted in April-August 2016.  This is the only worldwide public opinion survey on views and experiences of corruption by ordinary citizens. As the only global poll of the general public, it provides an indicator of how corruption is affecting individuals on a national level and how efforts to curb corruption around the world are viewed on the ground.  The main findings for Europe and Central Asia of the 2016 Barometer are given below in comparison with data for Azerbaijan.

Armenia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Serbia and Ukraine are seen as having the most severe corruption problems. These countries are rated poorly by their citizens across all of the key questions in the Global Corruption Barometer survey, whereas results for Azerbaijan show both certain progress in some areas, as well as demonstrates that some problems remain.

  • The survey shows that the level of corruption in Azerbaijan is gradually decreasing; this opinion is shared by 45% of respondents in 2016, while in 2010 this opinion was shared by 28% and in 2013 by 41% of respondents.
  • The number of people who have paid a bribe is also decreasing. Thus, 38% of the 2016 respondents admitted having paying a bribe as compared to 47% in 2010. As compared to 2013 Global Corruption Barometer results, less people (21% of the 2016 respondents) believe that corruption in the public sector is a serious problem. Though the public service in general is not corruption free, the level of corruption in the police and judiciary are seen as less than in the past. The least level of corruption is seen in the application for state issued documents.
  • On the other side, in contrast to the previous survey when more than a half highly assessed government’s efforts to combat corruption, in 2016 only one in every four shares this opinion.  Still, very few people (15%) are not satisfied with the government’s anti-corruption efforts, and more than a half were not well enough informed to make a judgement.

Overall, the survey shows that the level of corruption in Azerbaijan is gradually decreasing and the least level of corruption is seen in the delivery of state issued documents. In the light of the fact that many people were at a difficulty to answer the survey questions, it is crucial that the government, media and non-governmental organizations shall take an active role in anti-corruption education of the people.

 

Major regional findings Findings from Azerbaijan
One in three respondents think corruption is one of the biggest problems facing their country. In Azerbaijan only one fifth of the respondents (21%) agree with this conclusion. Moreover, less people view corruption as a serious problem as compared to 2013.  According to respondents, other serious problems are: unemployment (59 %), education (21 %), crime (9 %), and public health care (8%).
More than a half of citizens (53%) rate their government badly at fighting corruption and 23% say their governments are doing well. Differing from major regional findings, in Azerbaijan only 15% are not satisfied with their government’s efforts to combat corruption, and the same proportion of the surveyed as elsewhere in the region (24%) say the government is doing well.  It shall be underlined that over half of respondents (60%) were not well informed to answer this question. In contrast, in 2013 68% of respondents believed that government’s efforts to combat corruption are effective, as compared to 66% in 2010.
Politicians and public officials are seen as the most corrupt. Nearly a third of people say that most or all of them are corrupt (31% and 30% respectively). In contrast to regional findings, on the average only 11% believe that public officials and politicians are corrupt.   This question turned out to be difficult for the Azerbaijan survey participants with about a half of respondents could not respond this question. Also, 21% ranked police as corrupt with tax and finance officials at 18% followed by judges (16%) and local government at 14%. There is a progress in these areas, as compared to the previous reports. In 2010 people rated corruption within police at 3.6 and in 2013 at 2.9 (on a scale from 1 to 5, where 1 stays for a minimum and 5 for a very serious problem).  Tax and finance officials, as well as local governments were not singled out in the previous surveys, but corruption within judiciary was assessed at 3.2 (in 2010) and 3.1 (in 2013)  on the scale above.
The public opinion with regards to corruption in the private sector is not unanimous.  Over a quarter of citizens in Europe and Central Asia say that business executives are highly corrupt (26%). 10% of Azerbaijan respondents believe that business is corrupt which an improvement also.  In the past corruption in the business sector was assessed at 2.6 (2010) and 2.8 (2013) on the scale as above.
Many people (about 60%) think that the wealthy have undue influence on government decisions, and there needs to be stricter rules to prevent this. In Azerbaijan this opinion is also shared: a little less than a half (43%) agrees that the wealthy have undue influence on government decisions.
Bribery is still common and in the region 1 in every 6 household paid a bribe. The rate is particularly high in the CIS countries, where on the average nearly a third of public service users have paid a bribe (30%) in the past year and bribery is highest in Tajikistan where this rises to 50% of service users. In Azerbaijan 38% of public service users reported having paying a bribe, which is a progress from 2010 when 47% admitted this (there is no data from 2013.
Across the region, on the average 34% do not believe that ordinary people can make a difference in the fight against corruption. This opinion is shared in Azerbaijan by 23% of those surveyed, which is less than the 29% in 2013.
Only 1 in 5 bribe payers reported the incident. The main reasons more people do not come forward to report corruption is that they are afraid of the consequences (30%). Furthermore, less than a half of people say that they think it is socially acceptable to report corruption in their country (38%). In Azerbaijan the number of those who reported a bribe is even less:  only 1 in 10 reported the bribe (9%). However, the number of those who would not report corruption because of the fear of retaliation is 14%, while another 12% abstain because they think that corruption is too difficult to prove.  The same number (38%) believes that it is socially acceptable to report corruption.
Reporting corruption or refusing to pay bribes is the most effective actions people think they can take (18% and 20%). Still 27% of citizens in Europe and Central Asia are resigned to the fact that people can do nothing. In Azerbaijan  people prefer taking individual action, either active by reporting corruption (7%) or passive by refusing to pay bribes   (17%); while  tools of collective action, such as signing a petition or joining or supporting an  anti-corruption organization, etc. are not prioritized by ordinary citizens. Less people than in the region (23%) believe they can do nothing.

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